Tuesday, January 21, 2014

Thorny Oyster


 Author's note: To see an earlier post that lists different kinds of shells the ancient Maya used, click here.

Spondylus carving of a dog from the 600s to 700s AD.
May have been attached to clothing or been a pendant.
Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.


The thorny oyster (Spondylus princeps) is a creature with a red to red-orange spiny shell that sometimes produces pearls (another item the ancient Maya valued). Also known simply as spondylus, it lives in the ocean around a depth where divers without expert ability or scuba equipment would have difficulty getting to.  Used in different ways, the shell of the thorny oyster obtained elite status level by the finish of the Classic Period.

Working the Shell
Thorny oyster shells were altered in a number of ways. One of the ways was to rub young thorny oysters to make the colors of the shell stand out. This method was employed at Tikal, during the early Classic and Middle Classic periods.

Another method of alteration was to scrape off the nacre found on the shell's interior sides. As to where all this method was used, some contradiction has been found. In her book, Animals and Plants of the Ancient Maya: A Guide, Victoria Schlesinger states that this method was used at Tikal, while Maya Art and Architecture by Mary Ellen Miller does not state it was restricted to any city-state.

A third known method was very simple indeed. This method involved just drilling a hole through the shell. This hole was to be used for stringing.

Things Fashioned from Thorny Oyster
Once prepared, the shell would then be used to decorate rulers' mantles, shaped into tiles for mosaics, crafted into ear flares (spool-shaped earrings) and used to make hip ornaments for women. Sometimes thorny oyster was worn as a pendant necklace (via the one-hole method). Beyond personal adornment, thorny oyster was also used as part of funeral goods and in caches.

References:
"Maya Art and Architecture"; Mary Ellen Miller; 1999
"The Ancient Maya: New Perspectives"; Heather Irene McKillop; 2004
"Maya History"; Tatiana Proskouriakoff; 2011
"The Meriam-Webster Dictionary"; 2004
"Animals and Plants of the Ancient Maya: A Guide"; Victoria Schlesinger; 2001
Metropolitan Museum of Art: Canine Ornament

Thursday, January 16, 2014

Shells for Appearances

From personal adornment to ritual use, left whole or cut into shapes, the ancient Maya utilized different kinds of shells in their artistic and religious endeavors. Shells that we know the Maya used include the shell of the thorny oyster, the oliva, the conch and the pecten, among others.

Thorny Oyster
This oyster has a spiny shell, whose specific shade ranges from a red to a red-orange. The ancient Maya used the thorny oyster to make a whole range of items, from jewelry to cloak decorations. It became a more elite level shell by the Classic Period's close.

Oliva
Ancient Maya kings used the oliva shell in a certain kind of costume in which they wore strands of them -- these strands are thought to have made noise as they moved. For example, Yikin Chan Kawil (also spelled Yik'in Chan K'awiil), a king of Tikal during the 700s AD, can be seen in Tikal's Stela 5 wearing oliva shells. In contrast to the thorny oyster, by the Classic period's close the oliva shell was utilized by non-elite Maya in their adornments.

Conch
When it comes to the conch, the ancient Maya used several species for their shells. One species they turned into a kind of trumpet via altering the shell's lip, and then decorated -- by carving it, for example. Two other species have been found at sites carved into discs -- possibly items of personal wear. Like the oliva shell, at the finish of the Classic Period, conch shells were also a shell used by non-elites in their adornment.

Pecten
This shell's appearance is that of the quintessential scalloped clam shell. Introduced from Central Mexico, pecten shells were in favor in the Early Classic Period. Examples of pecten shells in art can be seen on Stela 4 at Tikal, in which the ruler is wearing a necklace of pecten shells -- an item seen in Teotihuacan art.

Other Shells
Two other kinds of shells were used, at least by the Classic Period's finale, by people of the non-elite class. These are the shells of freshwater mussels and pearly oysters, used by people of non-elite status for personal adornment.

Consideration
There are instances where, though a site is near a large body of salt water, the site's residents seem to have favored another body of salt water. One example of this is that most of the shells and other saltwater items at Tikal come from the Gulf of Mexico, not the Caribbean Sea. Another example is at Copán, where the Pacific Ocean seems to have the been preferred source of saltwater items.

References:
"Maya Art and Architecture"; Mary Ellen Miller; 1999
"The Ancient Maya: New Perspectives"; Heather Irene McKillop; 2004
"Maya History"; Tatiana Proskouriakoff; 2011
"The Meriam-Webster Dictionary"; 2004
"Animals and Plants of the Ancient Maya: A Guide"; Victoria Schlesinger; 2001

Saturday, January 11, 2014

Maya Blue


Used by the ancient -- and Colonial Period -- Maya (and other Mesoamericans), Maya blue is a pigment that is noticeably resistant to deterioration. After numerous studies (beginning in the early 1900s), it is now thought that at least two things went into its making: indigo dye and a kind of clay, either sepiolite or palygorskite. This article will focus on Maya blue's composition, production, resistance and its uses.

Historical Note
Maya blue has been found within the context of the Late Preclassic. However, it is in the Late Classic that increased usage of Maya blue began. During the beginning of the Late Classic, the use of Maya blue appears to have become common in the Usumacinta region, the Puuc region and Guatemala. The ancient Maya used the pigment through the Postclassic Period and even in the Colonial Period -- though its use declined and disappeared during the latter (around the end of the 1500s).

Color
Maya blue ranges in color from a light blue to green blue, and adjectives connected to its description include "vivid" and "radiant".  The color might be connected to iron as well as iron oxide nanoparticles, though it is also possible that it isn't -- an alternate theory being that it is the ratio of indigo dye to clay. Different shades may have been possible through different kinds of Maya blue recipes.

Indigo Dye
The genus Indigofera has species that can be used to produce indigo dye. The indigo dye the ancient Maya used could have come from different species, such as Indigofera suffruticosa (a shrub whose other names include Guatemala indigo, ti cafe, añil, wild indigo, añil de pasto or just indigo.

As for the way the ancient Maya made their dye -- that has yet to be discovered, and is therefore one of the lingering mysteries of Maya blue. For example, whether or not the dye was a liquid or reduced even further into chunks of dye (which would be ground up). 

The Clay -- Palygorskite or Sepiolite?
Of the resources thus far found in researching Maya blue, most tend to favor palygorskite as the clay that was used; (though some also include sepiolite in their definition. One book, Developments in Palygorskite-Sepiolite Research, states that sepiolite sometimes is found in Maya blue from the Aztec area.)

Also called attapulgite (an older name), palygorskite is defined by Encyclopedia Britannica Online as a fibrous magnesium aluminum silicate. It is a clay whose molecular structure is described as "fibrous", a kind of structure that has "channels" (or tunnels, as Handbook to Clay Science describes them). The "fibrous" structure, it is understood, is necessary for making Maya blue.

Production
It is now thought that it is not enough to mix indigo dye and palygorskite together -- the mixture has to be heated (Handbook says it must be 302 Fahrenheit), and for a couple of days.  As evidence, dehydroindigo (oxidized indigo dye) has been found in Maya blue, which may have formed when heated. Also, a blue color was only obtained, in studies I have found on creating Maya blue, when something else was added (such as acetone or diluted hydrochloric acid), so it is possible the ancient Maya had an acid or acids they could use.

How does the indigo dye bind to the clay?  It is thought that the dye is caught in the channels (or tunnels) of the palygorskite, perhaps at the ends of these channels. 

A Potential Ingredient: Copal
A theory also exists that Maya blue was made by using burning copal resin to bind the indigo and palygorskite. According to Developments, it is yet to be seen whether or not Maya blue could be created by adding palygorskite-indigo dye mix to melted copal -- which melts below 302 degrees Fahrenheit.

Resistance
A word connected to Maya blue is "stable". It is resistant to many things. For example, The Field Museum's Dr. Gary Feinman states that, "Maya blue is a very stable pigment. In other words, it does not rub of or wash off very easily." (Author's transcription.)

But Maya blue can resist more than rubbing and washing. Published in 2009, Electrochemical Methods in Archaeometry, Conservation and Restoration gives a list of things Maya blue can withstand. The book states that Maya blue is resistant to "...acids, alkalis, oxidants, reducing agents, organic solvents or biodegration."

How long can Maya blue resist attack? A study conducted by Rutherford J. Gettens involved putting samples of Maya blue from an incense burner in various liquids, including concentrated hydrochloric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid. After eighteen hours had passed the samples were still the same color.

Uses
The ancient Maya used Maya blue artistically for their murals, such as the murals at Bonampak, and figurines, such as those found on Jaina Island. Maya blue was also used as part of the color palette in codices. Also, it seems, they used it when preparing people and inanimate objects off as sacrifices.

What was the connection between Maya blue and making sacrifices? The understanding is that votives were covered with the pigment before they were sacrificed. As evidence, at the bottom of the Sacred Cenote, a layer of blue silt was found while it was being dredged. Dr. Feinman states that coating objects (and people) in Maya blue was an act used when making sacrifices to rain deities.


References: 









Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Hochob Part One -- Name and History

Hochob, whose name is translated in different but similar ways, is located in the Mexican state of Campeche (in the Yucatan Peninsula), in the northern lowlands of the area the ancient Maya occupied. It is found in the Chenes region, and its architecture is mostly of the Chenes style, though there is also an example of Río Bec architecture at the site.

Name
The Common word used in translating Hochob's name is "corn." According to Explorer's Guide to Mexico's Aztec & Maya Empires (Explorer's Complete), "hochob" means "Place Where the Corn Was Harvested". The 2013 edition of Lonely Planet Cancun, Cozumel & the Yucatan's translation is similar, saying the word means "place where the corn is harvested". The Instituto Nacional de Arqueolo/gica (INAH) states that the word means "lugar de las mazorcas de maís", which through the author's Spanish skill (with some help from Google Translate) means "Place of the Corn Cobs". Yucatán Peninsula, by Liza Prado and Gary Chandler, says the same thing as INAH.

Pre-Columbian History
Hochob's architectural styles date from the Classic period, specifically the Late Classic (and, in part, the Terminal Classic).Archaeology  of Ancient Mexico and Central America states that the buildings currently totally restored were built  during the Late Classic (a sub-section of the Classic period that lasted around 600 AD to 900 AD).

Rediscovery an survey Work
An Austrian named Teobert Maler is credited with being the first to officially report the existence of Hochob. In 1887 he traveled to the site. In 1895, seven years after the visit, Maler published images of the site -- including a map of the main plaza's east side -- in Globus (a magazine). Around twenty years later, in 1916, Eduard Seler published a review that was better than Maler's and included some of Maler's material that he hadn't published Several other reviews of Hochob were also created; the first one by Harry Pollock and the second by Ricardo de Robina.

Restoration Work
In 1982 the Southeast Regional Center of the INAH had both excavation and consolidation performed at Hochob, Ramon Carrasco -- with help from Sylviane Boucher -- directing. Work was done on five buildings.


References:
"Archaeology of Ancient Mexico and Central America: An Encyclopedia"; Susan Toby Evans, David L. Webster; 2013

"Fodor's Cancun and the Riviera Maya 2013: with Cozumel and the Best of the Yucatan"; 2012

"Explorer's Guide Mexico's Aztec & Maya Empires (Explorer's Complete)"; Zain Deane; 2011

"Lonely Planet Cancún, Cozumel & the Yucatán"; Lonely Planet, John Hecht, Sandra Bao; 2013

"Yucatán Peninsula"; Liza Prado, Gary Chandler; 2009

INAH: Zona Arqueológica de Hochob

University of Texas Libraries: Digital Repository: z Contents